Infections that enter the body through sexual contact affect both reproductive and urinary organs simultaneously as they are functionally related. The course of antibiotics, which is necessarily prescribed in such cases, can be conducted at home.
Therapy with antibiotic Doxycycline makes sense in inflammatory processes characterized by impaired urination, purulent discharge, reddening of the mucous tissues of the genitals. Their use contributes to the removal of inflammation, pain syndrome, and prevents further spread of infection to nearby organs and body systems. A tangible and sufficiently rapid result of antibiotic therapy depends on the patient’s early treatment, when the disease is at an early stage.
What is UTI?
The urinary system of a person includes the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys. Anatomically and physiologically, the urinary tract is closely related to the organs of the reproductive system. The most common form of pathology of the urinary tract is the infectious diseases – diseases of the genitourinary system. Urinary tract infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites. They represent a group of diseases, many of which are sexually transmitted.
In men, as a rule, the lower parts of the urinary tract are affected, which is associated with the relatively large length of the urethra, so they are dominated by frequent painful urination, rubbing along the urethra, difficulty urinating, heaviness in the perineal region. This causes them to consult a doctor without delay. Dominant diseases of the genitourinary system are such as: urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). Urinary tract infections in men are relatively rare. Sometimes, they are caused by abnormalities of the urinary tract, but more often they are promoted by anal sex, inadequate hygiene in uncircumcised foreskin and features of the microflora of the partner’s vagina.
Women often develop upward urinary tract infections. This is due to the anatomical features of their urethra (short and wide). The causative agent easily enters the bladder and further – along the ureters, into the pelvis of the kidneys. In this case, the disease can occur not with acute manifestations, more often there are chronic forms. Mostly develop diseases of the genitourinary system, such as: urethritis, cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) and pyelonephritis (inflammation of the renal pelvis). Quite often, there is an asymptomatic bacteriuria, that is, the presence of microflora in the urine, revealed during analysis, without any external signs of the disease.
According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, genitourinary infections are the following diseases:
- urethritis (inflammation of the urethra);
- cystitis (inflammation of the bladder);
- pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys);
- adnexitis (inflammation of the ovaries);
- salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes);
- endometritis (inflammation of the uterine mucosa);
- balanitis (inflammation of the glans penis);
- balanoposthitis (inflammation of the head and foreskin of the penis);
- prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland);
- vesiculitis (inflammation of seminal vesicles);
- epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis).
Most often genitourinary infections are caused by the following pathogenic microorganisms: gonococcus; mycoplasma; ureaplasma; Chlamydia; Trichomonas; pale treponema (syphilis); cocci (staphylococci, streptococci); sticks (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa); fungi (candidiasis); Klebsiella; Listeria; coliform bacteria; Proteus; viruses (herpes, cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus, etc.).
Any genitourinary infection is accompanied by the development of the following symptoms:
- soreness and unpleasant sensations in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- tingling sensation;
- the presence of vaginal discharge in women, from the urethra – in men and women;
- various disorders of urination (burning, itching, difficulty, acceleration, etc.);
- the appearance of unusual structures on the external genitalia (plaques, film, vesicles, papillomas, condylomas).
With any genitourinary infection in men and women, regardless of which organ was involved in the inflammatory process, the most important task of diagnosis is to identify the pathogenic microorganism that caused the infection. It is for this purpose that most of the laboratory tests are assigned. And some of these tests are the same for men and women, and some are different. Therefore, we will consider separately, in order to avoid confusion, what tests the doctor can assign to a man or woman with suspected genitourinary infections in order to identify the pathogen.
Can Doxycycline Treat UTI?
Doxycycline has good natural activity against Escherichia coli and some enterobacteria and has little effect on staphylococci; It is not active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococci. Has the highest among all antibiotics natural activity against atypical microorganisms. Currently, the value of doxycycline in urogenital infections is limited due to the availability of more effective and safe antibiotics. Doxycycline is used in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis, which until now is considered as a drug of choice.
Doxycycline, a semisynthetic antibiotic from the tetracycline group, was created in 1967 and has been widely used in clinical practice for many years. According to its chemical structure, it is 6-dihydroxy-5-oxytetracycline and has a mechanism of action common to all tetracyclines. Its therapeutic activity significantly exceeds the progenitor (natural tetracycline), chemical synthesis allows to achieve a high degree of purification of the drug and the appearance of new very useful properties. As a consequence of this – new opportunities for use and a significant reduction in adverse reactions – both toxic and allergic.
In comparison with tetracycline, doxycycline has a number of pharmacokinetic advantages: a greater degree of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and less influence of food and milk on this process; a longer half-life (which allows prescribing 1-2 times a day); good penetration into various tissues due to its lipophilicity; absence of cumulation of the drug in the blood due to an increase in its excretion with feces and increased metabolism in the violation of kidney function, which makes it possible to use it in patients with renal insufficiency.
How to Use Doxycycline to Treat UTI?
Dosages are determined by the doctor for each patient individually, taking into account the form and severity of inflammation. For example, in acute cystitis, for adults and children over the age of twelve (over 45 kg), an antibiotic is administered per tablet twice daily in the first day and on a pill once a day on the following days.
Taking an antibiotic with chronic cystitis is recommended in the dosage 2 tablets a day (better in two doses) throughout the course of the therapy. The therapeutic course lasts for an average of up to 5 days, it is also set up by the doctor individually.
Maximum per day you can take 600 mg Doxycycline for gonococcal infection and 300 mg for other infections. If these doses are exceeded, signs of overdose and drug poisoning may develop – neurotoxic reactions that occur: nausea and vomiting; convulsions, increased intracranial pressure and due to this confusion of consciousness. If such symptoms occur, immediate discontinuation of the drug, gastric lavage is required. To prevent and reduce the absorption of the drug, magnesium sulfate, antacid preparations, activated charcoal are prescribed.
Doxycycline dosage for UTI
- In case of the uncomplicated urethral, cervical and rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis; non-monocytic urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum; uncomplicated genital infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (with the exception of anorectal infection in men) – 100 mg 2 times a day for at least 7 days;
- Acute orchioididymitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae – 100 mg 2 times a day for 10 days;
- Primary and secondary syphilis in patients without confirmed pregnancy and with penicillin allergy (as an alternative treatment) – 200 mg 2 times a day for 14 days.
How Fast Will Doxycycline Work for UTI?
Many researchers have repeatedly proved the high efficacy of the drug (91-98%) and noted as an advantage the low cost of standard therapy (100 mg 2 times daily orally for 7 days). In numerous studies, the expediency of the early appointment of doxycycline and reactive arthritis associated with chlamydial infection was substantiated. This is due to the leading role in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis, including Reiter’s disease, an infectious focal site that is localized in the urinary tract. In this case, the most significant etiologic agent is chlamydial infection.
The persistence of infection, in turn, leads to the recurrence and chronization of the pathological process in the joints. This allows you to control the pathological process, and in some cases prevent the development of joint damage. Although persuasive data on the influence of antibiotics on the course of articular syndrome have not been obtained, nevertheless, with the elimination of chlamydial infection, relapses and chronic disease occur more rarely. In general, recognizing the need for long-term use of antibiotics (including doxycycline) during Reiter’s disease, it should be noted that there is no consensus on treatment regimens in the world literature.