Doxycycline is one of the time-tested antibiotics. It was synthesized in the early 60s of the last century by scientists of the American pharmaceutical giant Pfizer. Doxycycline has a pronounced bacteriostatic effect, blocking the synthesis of proteins in the cell of a pathogenic microorganism. An important advantage of the drug is its ability to penetrate the bacterial cell wall. Due to this, Doxycycline exerts an antibacterial effect on intracellular microorganisms. The spectrum of pharmacological activity is very impressive and includes a variety of pathogens.
What is Pneumonia and How Dangerous Is It?
Pneumonia refers to acute infectious diseases. The causative agents of pneumonia may be varieties of viruses, bacteria, fungi. There are also such types as aspiration pneumonia or paracancreatic pneumonia, developing around the focus of a cancerous tumor in the lung tissues. At the first signs of pneumonia, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.
The inflammatory process in the lungs is a disease that can cause significant harm to health. Before the invention of antibiotics, mortality from pneumonia reached 80%. At the moment, in various regions, deaths due to the development of pneumonia range from 5 to 40%, with the elderly mostly affected.
Uncomplicated form of the disease with timely diagnosis and treatment is cured for 10-14 days. Modern medicines help to avoid serious complications and cure almost any form of pneumonia without consequences. However, it must be remembered that for the effective treatment and successful prevention of complications, therapy of this disease should be handled by a specialist.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory process with localization in the lung tissues. In most cases, the causative agent is an infectious agent. The ways of getting the infection into the body are different, most often it is airborne, less often – spread through the bloodstream. Part of the microorganisms responsible for the development of pneumonia is constantly present in the human body. With the proper level of immune protection, the body successfully copes with such infections, with a decrease in the level of protective forces (hypothermia, primary disease), an inflammatory process develops in the lungs.
Most often in the etiology of pneumonia, there are diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In this case, against the background of the symptoms of colds, tracheitis, acute, chronic bronchitis, another focus of infection in the respiratory organs develops an inflammatory process in the lungs. The origin of the disease can also be a consequence of the transferred disease of other organs and systems, complication after surgery, other situations that negatively affect immunity.
Symptomatology of the disease depends on the reasons that caused it, the age of the patient, the state of his health. The disease proceeds acutely or develops in an erased form, can have classical symptoms or be asymptomatic, atypical pneumonia. The most severe course of the disease with severe pulmonary complications is noted in elderly patients, people with weakened immunity and children with their imperfect immune system.
Pneumonia symptoms in adults:
The most frequent trigger factor of the inflammatory process in the lungs of the adult population is hypothermia. To the characteristic symptoms of pneumonia in such cases include the following manifestations that occur sequentially:
- suddenly developing hyperthermia of the body, a sharp rise in temperature to febrile indices; symptoms of body intoxication (fatigue, weakness, headaches);
- for 3-5 days there is a dry cough, turning into a wet cough, with the separation of sputum;
- pain in the chest from the side of lung tissue damage (with bilateral pneumonia on both sides) with coughing, breathing;
- the appearance of dyspnea as a consequence of extensive lung damage and the onset of respiratory failure.
The picture of the disease may not correspond to the classical pattern of the disease. The clinical manifestations and severity of the disease largely depend on the type of pathogen of the inflammatory process. So, among the atypical pathogens, the H1N1 influenza virus, an infectious agent of the “swine flu”, is known to cause a serious complication in the form of a viral bilateral pneumonia accompanied by significant lesions of the lung tissue with extensive inflammation foci and acute respiratory failure.
With high frequency, pneumonia develops against the background of acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections accompanied by influenza-like symptoms. The risk of pneumonia and the presence of other complications is significantly increased when self-administered “treatment”, most often in the intake of antipyretics. This promotes the spread of infection down the respiratory tract and the formation of infectious foci in the lungs. Thus, the prevention of pneumonia in infectious diseases becomes a full course of treatment and timely diagnosis.
The risk group includes:
- children of early age with intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia, birth trauma, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart defects or lung development, hypotrophy and hypovitaminosis, immunodeficiency states;
- patients with chronic lung diseases or frequent bronchitis;
- immunodeficient patients;
- people who suffer from alcoholism or who use narcotic drugs;
- patients with chronic foci of infection (chronic tonsillitis, etc.);
- patients with background pathologies (diabetes mellitus or other endocrine diseases, kidney disease, cardiovascular pathology, etc.);
- patients working with toxic substances, miners, shop workers (occupational risk factors);
- patients older than 65 years.
Features of the Use of Doxycycline for the Treatment of Pneumonia
Tetracycline antibiotics, which Doxycycline belongs to, have a number of not the most positive qualities that can affect our body. However, we are able to neutralize the negative effect of Doxycycline if we follow the rules for the use of this drug. Experts warn that Doxycycline can irritate the esophagus mucosa. To avoid the formation of ulcerative lesions, drink as much fluid as possible during treatment.
Antibiotics of the tetracycline series, and in particular Doxycycline, have a photosensitizing effect, that is, they increase the sensitivity of our body to the action of ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, during treatment, avoid exposure to sunlight and use sunscreen cosmetic products. And the last. Doxycycline irreversibly binds to calcium. In this regard, specialists do not recommend milk, kefir and other dairy products within three hours before and after taking the drug.
Doxycycline Dosage for Pneumonia
When ingested, the drug is almost completely absorbed into the stomach. Eating does not affect the absorption of the medicine. After 2 hours after taking the antibiotic reaches the maximum concentration in the blood plasma and binds with plasma proteins (up to 95%). The therapeutic concentration in the blood plasma after a single dose is kept for 15-16 hours, with repeated – 18-24 hours. This allows you to take Doxycycline once a day. It is excreted unchanged in urine (40%) and with feces (40%).
The normal daily dosage of Doxycycline for an adult, either intravenously or intravenously, is 200 mg or 100 mg every 12 hours. The duration of intravenous administration depends entirely on the patient’s condition, the type of pathogen and the severity of the inflammatory process. On average, treatment takes from 3 to 5 days, in severe cases it can take up to one week.
For young children (over 6 years old), it is recommended to perform calculations according to the weight of the weight, on the first day of intake, the daily dose should be 4 mg per kg, and then the concentration of the substance 2 mg per kg is used. In children weighing more than 45 kg, dosage and reception are the same as in adults.
How Long Does Doxycycline Stay in Your System?
With the prolonged treatment, the drug can be cumulated. Under this not always and not all understandable term, the dangerous feature of the substance or accumulate quantitatively in the tissues is, which can accumulate the effect. In the case of Doxycycline, functional cumulation is more common. It is expressed in the fact that in some patients with repeated use of the medicine an accumulation of the effect takes place. Cumulation is usually recorded in patients with severe impairment of liver function, but the antibiotic still does not have a toxic effect.
The antibiotic practically does not inhibit the normal intestinal microflora. Due to this property, the intake of medication is very rarely accompanied by diarrhea. It is most fully absorbed. It belongs to the long acting drugs. The half-life of the drug is long enough (up to 10 hours), so it can be taken only twice a day.